The town had three radio stations as well as new technology in the organisation of the British fleet. Damage to The Grand Hotel in Scarborough. , The High Seas Fleet had failed to engage the inferior British squadrons at Dogger Bank and the British nearly led a chase into the German fleet even after it had turned away. The Zeppelin then went away. They found their shells had no effect on the armoured sides of the ships, so instead aimed at masts and rigging.  Jellicoe was requested to move south with the Grand Fleet, which was waiting at Scapa Flow. At 07:46, they received word that large ships had been sighted and at 08:10, a bombardment of the town began. The ships had disappeared but were heading toward the opposite end of the minefield, where Warrender was waiting. , It was also believed that two British battlecruisers—which would be the fast ships sent out first to investigate any attack—had been despatched to South America and had taken part in the Battle of the Falkland Islands. Hole made in side of Baptist Chapel after bombardment ._x000D_ _x000D_ Air raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby , which took place on 16 December 1914 Scarborough and Whitby have also been shelled. Around 1,150 shells were fired at the town. Kolberg remained, as she had 100 mines to lay. The five-minute long newsreel shows the aftermath of the bombardment of Hartlepool on 16 December 1914. Hole made in side of Baptist Chapel after bombardment ._x000D_ _x000D_ Air raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby , which took place on 16 December 1914 Civilians crowded into the railway station and the roads leading out of the town. The deteriorating weather was also causing problems. However, engine problems and strong winds led the airship to veer off course. The Imperial German Navy made major attacks on Scarborough, Hartlepool, West Hartlepool, and Whitby on 16 December 1914. , The battleships and cruisers commanded by Warrender set out from Scapa Flow at 05:30 on 15 December. , The High Seas Fleet was outnumbered by the Grand Fleet and perforce, avoided a fleet action. Sound of Music star Christopher Plummer dies at 91, Myanmar teachers join growing anti-coup protests, The voter fraud claims that led to a coup, What Biden's foreign policy 'reset' really means, 'Mosul is healing': Rebuilding the historic city. Five members of the Bennett family were killed during the raid. Moscow say the diplomats attended weekend protests in support of Putin critic Alexei Navalny. Beatty's light cruisers entered the mined channels to search. However, engine problems and strong winds led the airship to veer off course. On inquiring where the High Seas Fleet was, he discovered that it had returned home and that his destroyers had sighted British ships. Mr Simmons said the film, which has been donated to and restored by the North East Film Archive (NEFA), was "mostly previously unseen footage" by the Gaumont Company. Then two bombs were dropped in a field at Longhill, damaging houses nearby. Dorman Long at Middlesbrough, for example, will be responsible for the manufacture of millions of shells.  Belatedly, the Admiralty intercepted signals from the High Seas Fleet at Heligoland as it returned to port and now warned the British ships that the German fleet was coming out. At 06:35 on 16 December, the destroyers and three light cruisers were ordered to return to Germany. , Admiral Hipper left the Jade Bight at 03:00 on 15 December. HMS Ambuscade was taking on water and had to turn away. The weather had started clear with good visibility, deteriorated again. The 3rd Cruiser Squadron (Rear-Admiral William Pakenham) from Rosyth, with the armoured cruisers HMS Devonshire, Antrim, Argyll and Roxburgh were added to the force. Bombardment of Hartlepool . The Heugh Battery on the Headland at Hartlepool is the only location in England where our land forces engaged the enemy strike force during World War One. The two forces rendezvoused at 11:00 near Moray Firth. , At 06:50, Shark and the destroyers sighted the cruiser SMS Roon with its destroyer escort. At approximately 8.10 on the morning of 16 December 1914 the First High Seas Fleet Scouting Group, commanded by Admiral Franz von Hipper, unleashed a bombardment of the North Sea English seaports of Hartlepool, West Hartlepool, Whitby and Scarborough. The guns were manned by 11 officers and 155 local men of the Durham Royal Garrison Artillery. Hartlepool became the first place on mainland Britain to be bombed by the Germans. Three battlecruisers had been sent to South America and the brand new super-dreadnought HMS Audacious had been lost to a mine; HMS Thunderer, another super-dreadnought, was undergoing repairs. Bombing Raids on Civilian Targets during WW1 There appears still to be little public knowledge of the air raids that took place in the UK during the First World War. The Gunners of the RGA engaged the German Warships, and it was the only time coastal artillery in the UK were involved in enemy action. People fled the town by road and attempted to do so by train; 86 civilians were killed and 424 injured (122 killed and 443 wounded according to Arthur Marder in 1965). Two shore guns fired at the leading ship, while the third fired at the last, smaller, vessel. During that short period over 500 shells rained down on the castle … The garrison of 166 Durham Light Infantrymen was warned at 0430 of the possibility of an attack and issued live ammunition. The Admiralty ordered Keyes to take his two destroyers and attempt to torpedo Hipper as he returned home around 02:00; Keyes had considered this and wanted to try but the message was delayed and failed to reach him until too late. Dozens of … Churchill later defended the situation, arguing that the British ships were faster and could have turned about and run. Hartlepool will remember one of the most momentous days in its history with a major event to commemorate the centenary of its bombardment by the German … Kolberg, damaged in the raid and lagging behind the others, saw the smoke from his ships but was not seen; Hipper escaped. MAIN IMAGE - The main image is photographed with it's mount board. HMS Hardy came under heavy fire from the cruiser SMS Hamburg, suffering severe damage and catching fire but managed to fire a torpedo. Hartlepool was the first place on mainland Britain to be bombed by the Germans. Destroyers HMS Doon, Test, Waveney and HMS Moy were on patrol when Doon saw three large vessels approaching at 07:45, which opened fire shortly after. ApproximateApprox overall page size including page number where appropriate for Mounting or Mat Board purposes - 22.5cm x 26.8cm.  At 05:30, mindful of the orders not to place the fleet in jeopardy and fearing he had encountered the advance guard of the Grand Fleet, he reversed course towards Germany. Hartlepool became the first place on mainland Britain to be bombed by the Germans. Hipper also noted radio traffic from British ships which caused concern that the British might be aware something was up. Warrender also saw the ships and ordered Packenham to give chase with the four armoured cruisers but these were too slow and the Germans disappeared again into the mist. During the following night, SMS S33, one of the escorting destroyers, became separated and broke wireless silence to ask for direction. A raid on Yarmouth had produced few results but demonstrated the potential for fast raiding into British waters. On 16 December, 1914, the German Navy bombarded the town of Hartlepool, in north-east England, killing 130 people and injuring hundreds more. Mr Simmons said: "It is the best quality of any of the bombardment damage films but, crucially, contains a number of sections that have never been seen before, namely footage of Cleveland Street and the damage to houses at Carlton Terrace - including a close-up of local women and children.". On 16 December 1914 when German warships bombarded Hartlepool, the soldiers manning the Heugh Battery returning fire in 'Anger' at the three German cruisers in a fierce land and sea battle. Painting depicts bombardment Hartlepool-born James Clark produced this oil on canvas of the bombardment just weeks after the attack in 1915. Over 100 people died as more than 1,000 shells rained down on the town for about 40 minutes from the three heavy cruisers Blucher, Seydlitz and Moltke which emerged from the mist shortly after 8am on 16 December 1914. The Hartlepool Raid, 16 December 1914, was the only part of the German raid on the Yorkshire coast of 15-16 December to come up against a defended port. ORIGINAL ANTIQUE PRINT.  Commodore Reginald Tyrwhitt at Harwich was ordered to sea with his light cruisers, HMS Aurora and Undaunted and 42 destroyers. He attributed this to possible spying by trawlers which were encountered during the day. "On getting home, I just took out a few useful pieces and put the rest in storage," he said. The attack on Hartlepool killed 93, including the first soldier to be killed on British soil by enemy action in the First World War, and injured 436. The two remaining British light cruisers moved off to assist but Beatty, not having been informed of the larger force, called one of them back. Keyes's submarines were to move into Heligoland Bight to intercept ships returning to Germany. The second scout cruiser, HMS Forward, had no steam in her boilers and could not move. At 07:40 Jones, attempting to close on Roon to fire torpedoes, discovered that she was accompanied by two other cruisers and was obliged to withdraw at full speed. The death of Private Theophilus Jones of the Durham Light Infantry, age 29, was the first death of a British soldier from enemy action on British soil for 200 years. Description PLAQUE SET INTO A CARVED STONE ON LOW WALL Inscription THIS TABLET MARKS THE PLACE/ WHERE THE FIRST SHELL FROM THE/ LEADING GERMAN BATTLE CRUISER/ STRUCK AT 8:10 AM ON THE/ 16TH OF DECEMBER 1914/ AND ALSO RECORDS THE PLACE … At 08:42, Warrender and Beatty intercepted a message from Patrol at Scarborough that she was under attack by two battlecruisers. Jellicoe resolved that the entire Grand Fleet would be involved from the start in similar operations and the battlecruisers were moved to Rosyth to be closer. This was the opportunity that German strategy had been seeking, to even the odds; the ten British capital ships would have been outnumbered and outgunned; their loss would have ended the British numerical advantage. Due to confused signalling, the first cruiser misunderstood the message flashed by searchlight, passed it on to the others and all four disengaged and turned back to Beatty. Southampton reported that she was engaging a German cruiser accompanied by destroyers and Birmingham went to assist. , At 11:25, the light cruiser Southampton sighted German ships ahead. The gunners were hampered by a rising cloud of smoke and dust around them, affecting visibility. It also includes footage of the German attacks on Scarborough and Whitby the same day. Further damage to the ruined Whitby Abbey. Beginning at 8am on Wednesday 16 December 1914 two German battleships, Derfflinger and Von der Tann, bombarded the undefended Yorkshire seaside town of Scarborough for about half an hour. , Ingenohl had already exceeded his standing orders from the Kaiser by involving the main German fleet in the operation, without informing the Kaiser. The previous year, on 13 th Sept 1940, a man was killed near an air raid shelter at … This is a list of 1,747 Hartlepool men who were killed in WWI, compiled by Bert Wilson from various sources (newspapers, death records, cemetery registers, monument inscriptions, etc.) It is sorted by date, but you can sort it by surname (or any other column) by clicking the column header. Casualties included the first serviceman to be j killed on British soil in WW1 and two Gunners from the Durham RGA. At 08:15, Kolberg began to lay mines off Flamborough Head in a line extending 10 mi (8.7 nmi) out to sea. âCompletely unfilteredâ: How Arlo Parks found her voice, The race to create the world's next super-app, Africa's top shots: Rainy days and racetracks. Hartlepool was used as a … Orion's captain, Frederick Dreyer, trained his guns on Stralsund and requested permission of his superior, Rear Admiral Sir Robert Arbuthnot, who refused until Warrender granted permission. On 12 th May 1941 a “stick” of bombs fell across the Headland. Two raids accounted for all but one of the twenty-two fatalities in Hartlepool. Hartlepool was defended by guns at the Heugh and Lighthouse Batteries located on the Headland at Hartlepool. View location on Google Maps. By chance the British drew back and Hipper escaped the two forces set to trap him. Video'Mosul is healing': Rebuilding the historic city, French skiers swerve Covid in cross-country boom. The shell patterns suggest that these were the targets for the raid on 16 December 1914, not civilians as reported at the time and since. Goodenough sighted two more cruisers, Strassburg and Graudenz but failed to report them. The larger force suggested that bigger German ships would be following. The submarine HMS C9 followed Patrol to sea but had to dive when shells started falling around it and at 08:50, the German ships departed. , At 09:30 on 16 December, Hipper's ships recombined and headed for home at maximum speed. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. Sound of Music star Christopher Plummer dies at 911, Russia expels diplomats over Navalny protests2, Woman, 95, accused over 10,000 Nazi camp murders3, Actress shares story of 'nightmare' nose surgery4, US congresswoman who supported QAnon loses key post6, Parish council Zoom host 'surprised' by reaction7, BBC team threatened after Boxing and the Mob probe8, What Biden's foreign policy 'reset' really means9, Look back at Christopher Plummer's film highlights10. Â© 2021 BBC. The bombardments caused hundreds of civilian casualties and resulted in public outrage in Britain against the German Navy for the raid and the Royal Navy for failing to prevent it. The Raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby on 16 December 1914 was an attack by the Imperial German Navy on the British ports of Scarborough, Hartlepool, West Hartlepool and Whitby. News of a torpedo attack was passed to Ingenohl, whose outlying destroyers were the ones involved in the fighting. The bad weather meant that he could not take destroyers with him but Beatty brought seven when he departed from Cromarty at 06:00, together with the battlecruiser squadron. Warrender and Beatty kept apart to avoid shallow water over the Dogger Bank and to cut off different routes which Hipper might take to avoid minefields laid off the Yorkshire coast. At 08:00, Derfflinger and Von der Tann began to bombard the town. From "The Great World War - A History" Volume II, edited by Frank A Mumby. "In the bottom of the box, wrapped in sheets of old greaseproof paper, was an old film reel and the title card on the first frames - The Attack on the Hartlepools - was just visible.". Warrender changed course towards the position given by Shark, expecting Beatty to do the same. , The German ships fired 1,150 shells into Hartlepool, striking targets including the steelworks, gasworks, railways, seven churches and 300 houses. Warrender, realising that no battlecruisers had appeared in his direction, moved north but saw nothing. The British code breakers of Room 40 at the Admiralty could read German messages within a few hours of receiving them.  Keyes's submarines had been despatched to find returning German ships and also failed, although one torpedo was fired at SMS Posen by HMS E11, which missed. The attack became part of a British propaganda campaign; 'Remember Scarborough' was used on army recruitment posters and editorials in neutral America condemned it; "This is not warfare, this is murder". Attack by the Imperial German Navy on 16 December 1914, The difference between the two was less at this period than later in the war when Britain increased its lead in, Raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby, Stranton Grange Cemetery burials 1912–1919, "German Bombardment of Hartlepool, Whitby and Scarborough on 15th and 16th December 1914. Had he continued, he would shortly have engaged the four British battlecruisers and six battleships with his much larger force, which included 22 battleships. , The shore batteries remained confused about the approaching ships until shells began to fall. The Bombardment of the Hartlepools shows a …  Others, such as Jellicoe, felt there was a risk that an admiral such as Beatty would have insisted upon engaging the enemy once contact was established. Blame eventually settled on the confused signals, which had been drafted by Lieutenant Commander Ralph Seymour, who remained flag officer to Beatty, making similar costly mistakes at the Battle of Dogger Bank and at the Battle of Jutland. , Admiral John Jellicoe, commanding the Grand Fleet at Scapa Flow, was ordered to despatch the 1st Battlecruiser Squadron (Vice-Admiral David Beatty), with HMS Lion, Queen Mary, Tiger and New Zealand, together with the 2nd Battle Squadron (Vice-Admiral Sir George Warrender) comprising the modern dreadnoughts HMS King George V, Ajax, Centurion, Orion, Monarch and Conqueror, with the 1st Light Cruiser Squadron (Commodore William Goodenough) commanding HMS Southampton, Birmingham, Falmouth and Nottingham. The U-boat U-17 was sent to reconnoitre coastal defences near Scarborough and Hartlepool. The Hartlepool and Teesside area is a prime target for the Germans because it makes munitions, bridges and other resources for the war effort. 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