Concentrations of colored substances are commonly measured by means of a spectrophotometer. The total pressure of the sample is 755 millimeters of mercury. If you need professional help with completing any kind of homework, Online Essay Help is the right place to get it. What is the final concentration of barium ions, [Ba2+], in solution when 100. mL of 0.10 M BaCl2(aq) is mixed with 100. mL of 0.050 M H2SO4(aq)?What is the final concentration of barium ions, [Ba2+], in solution when 100. mL of 0.10 M BaCl2(aq) is mixed with 100. mL of 0.050 M H2SO4(aq)? Get the Gizmo ready: A rigid metal tank contains oxygen gas. Is used to explain why iodine molecules are held together in the solid state. Choose two nonmetals with a small (or no) EN difference between them. What happens to the end of the O2 molecule that is closest to the positive end of the A hot-air balloon rises. The formula of the hydrate is, CH4(g) + 2 O2(g) CO2(g) + 2 H2O(l); H = - 889.1 kJ, The net ionic equation for the reaction between silver carbonate and hydrochloric acid is, 2 Ag+ + CO32¯ + 2 H+ + 2 Cl¯ --> 2 AgCl(s) + H2O + CO2(g), The geometry of the SO3 molecule is best described as. probable location of electrons (orange dots) in a polar molecule. When all of the Xe gas reacted, forming a solid compound, the pressure of the unreacted F2 gas was 4.6 atmospheres.  Select the MOLECULAR POLARITY tab. The higher the EN value, the greater Introduction: The polarity of molecules give rise to the forces that act between them. The temperature of the water is 21°C and the atmospheric pressure in the laboratory is measured to be 772 torr. A 20.0-milliliter sample of 0.200-molar K2CO3 solution is added to 30.0 milliliters of 0.400-molar Ba(NO3)2 solution. simulation area. These chemical elements themselves exist naturally as diatomic (two-atom) molecules: oxygen molecule written O2 hydrogen molecule written H2 Click Play. B. Click Play and observe. The total pressure of the gases in the flask is 800 mm Hg. be nonpolar. isomer - same molecular formula but different chemical structure, The cooling curve for a pure substance as it changes from a liquid to a solid is shown above. Sketch the molecules, partial charges, and This study resource was F- has a larger nuclear charge than O2- has. What do you notice at the very top of the nitrogen A. Forms monatomic ions with 2- charge in solutions. What would be the pressure of this sample at 15° C and the same volume? 3. What is a possible molecular formula of the hydrocarbon? The gas is collected by displacing water in a water-filled flask inverted in a trough of water. These On the basis of the solubility curves shown above, the greatest percentage of which compound can be recovered by cooling a saturated solution of that compound from 90o to 30o? Is added to silicon to enhance its properties as a semiconductor. . Electronegativity difference is found by subtracting the EN value of one atom from another. What is the molar mass of the gas? H2O molecule? Experiment: Turn off Show polar molecule inset and Show nonpolar molecule inset. C. Classify this combination of molecules. The correct value for the percentage of water in the hydrate is 51 percent. Which of the following has a zero dipole moment? negative end is attracted to the positive plate. In this case, even though it contains polar bonds, the molecule as a whole may Which of the following gases deviates most from ideal behavior? Appropriate laboratory procedures include which of the following? In which of the following compounds is the mass ratio of chromium to oxygen closest to 1.62 to 1.00 ? As the bond forms, does the polarity of the O2 molecule change? B. Explanations for this observation include which of the following? C. Which nonmetal appears to attract electrons the most? Equal numbers of moles of He(g), Ar(g), and Ne(g) are placed in a glass vessel at room temperature. The solid is more soluble at higher temperatures. intermolecular forces, or IMFs, affect many physical properties including boiling point, Covalent bonds, on The ground-state configuration of a common ion of an alkaline earth element, Indicates that an atomic orbital can hold no more than two electrons. What do you notice? At 25°C and 1 atm, is a strong electrolyte in aqueous solution. and then click Pause when you see a bond form. This study resource was 3 Cu(s) + 8 H+(aq) + 2 NO3-(aq) 3 Cu2+(aq) + 2 NO(g) + 4 H2O(l). What do you notice? D. Click Reverse field. Does this molecule contain polar or nonpolar bonds? Electronegativity (EN) describes how Which of the following is a nonpolar molecule that contains polar bonds? the bond between them in the space to the right. Assume that you have an "unknown" consisting of an aqueous solution of a salt that contains one of the ions listed below. 4. In a nonpolar bond, electrons are shared equally. A valence electron is found in the outermost energy level of the atom. hydrogen atom FIGURE 1.2 A charged mercury atom shows up as a tiny white dot (indicated by the arrow). . to the oxygen atom in an adjacent H2O molecule? B. Click Turn on electric field. 7. What is the partial pressure of He if the total pressure in the container is 6 atm? 5. The mole fraction of CH3OH in this solution is closest to which of the following? 5. Introduction: A neutral atom has the same number of protons as electrons. Try several other metal/nonmetal combinations. Drag each of A big bully is having a tug-of-war with a small child. out, bending the chlorine atoms downward due to electron repulsion. What is the mole fraction of ethanol, C2H5OH, in an aqueous solution that is 46% ethanol by mass? Polar molecules Nonpolar molecules Which of the following aqueous solutions has the highest boiling point? A. How many mL of 10.0 M HCl are needed to prepare 500. mL of 2.00 M HCl? If 0.561 gram of any alkene is burned in excess oxygen, what number of moles of H2O is formed? When a sample of oxygen gas in a closed container of constant volume is heated until its absolute temperature is doubled, which of the following is also doubled? Bond polarity In which of the following groups are the three species isoelectronic; i.e., have the same number of electrons? Explain. Question: What causes bonds to be polar or nonpolar? All of the halogens in their elemental form at 25oC and 1 atm are, A reaction in which the same reactant undergoes both oxidation and reduction, 3 Br2(aq) + 6 OH-(aq) --> 5 Br-(aq) + BrO3-(aq) + 3 H2O(l), The volume of distilled water that should be added to 10.0 mL of 6.00 M HCl(aq) in order to prepare a 0.500 M HCl(aq) solution is approximately. slight positive charge on one end and a slight negative charge on the other. H2Se (g) + 4 O2F2 (g) SeF6 (g) + 2 HF (g) + 4 O2 (g), the oxidation number of Se changes from -2 to +6, Lattice of positive and negative ions held together by electrostatic forces. Activity A (continued from previous page) 6. Which of the following structural formulas represents an isomer of the compound that has the structural formula represented above? (Activity A continued on next page) Adding a weighed quantity of solid acid to a titration flask wet with distilled water. Therefore, the hybridization of Sb orbitals should be. A 0.1-molar solution of which of the following ions is orange? When the equation for this reaction is correctly balanced and all coefficients are reduced to their lowest whole-number term, the coefficient for O2 is, 10 HI + 2 KMnO4 + 3 H2SO4 5 I2 + 2 MnSO4 + K2SO4 + 8 H2O. shared via CourseHero.com2019 We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. The ground-state configuration for the atoms of a transition element. The diagram above represents H2(g) and N2(g) in a closed container. As a result, the What do you notice? Observe: Turn on the Show nonpolar molecules inset. bond, valence electrons are transferred from a metal to a nonmetal. Which of the following oxides is a gas at 25oC and 1 atm? At this temperature, the vapor pressure of water is 28 millimeters of mercury. The temperature remained constant. The resulting attractive force is called a Which of the following does NOT liberate heat when water is added to it? Ionic bonds are polar bonds that form between metal and nonmetal atoms. this situation? Do you think this molecule will rotate in the electric field? In the Polarity and Intermolecular 2. Strong single covalent bonds with weak intermolecular forces, When diluting concentrated H2SO4, one should slowly add acid to a beaker of water rather than add water to a beaker of acid. How do you know? Appropriate uses of a visible-light spectrophotometer include which of the following? A possible formula for the hydrocarbon is. Introduction: Ionic bonds, like those found in NaCl, form crystalline solids. Closely packed lattice with delocalized electrons throughout, In solid methane, the forces between neighboring CH4 molecules are best characterized as. (The molar mass of C2H5OH is 46 g; the molar mass of H2O is 18 g.), ___C10H12O4S (s) + ___O2 (g) ___CO2 (g) + ___SO2 (g) + ___H2O (g). Which element exhibits the greatest number of different oxidation states? A compound contains 1.10 mol of K, 0.55 mol of Te, and 1.65 mol of O. If the vessel has a pinhole-sized leak, which of the following will be true regarding the relative values of the partial pressures of the gases remaining in the vessel after some of the gas mixture has effused? Which of the following best describes what happens to the substance between t4 and t5? What is the molarity of a solution of phosphoric acid, H3PO4, that contains 24.5 g of phosphoric acid (molar mass 98.0 g) in 100. g of H2O? Ag(s) + . OH¯ . Represents an atom of a transition metal. Which of the following applies to the gas in the tank when additional oxygen is added at constant temperature? B. The solution is colorless. Which of the following molecules has an angular (bent) geometry that is commonly represented as a resonance hybrid of two or more electron-dot structures? What is the molarity of aspirin in a 50. mL sample of this solution? (It might take a few tries to get it right.) forces arise between polar molecules. To begin, drag the Na (sodium) and Cl (chlorine) atoms into the simulation area. The initial partial pressure of the F2 gas is 8.0 atmospheres and that of the Xe gas is 1.7 atmospheres. Turn on Show Two equally strong kids are having a tug-of-war. on the electrons they share. In the laboratory, H2(g) can be produced by adding which of the following to 1 M HCl(aq)? What mass of Au is produced when 0.0500 mol of Au2S3 is reduced completely with excess H2? covalent bond, partial charges, polar, polar covalent bond, valence electron Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from J. J. Thomson's cathode ray experiments? This study resource was Which of the following represents acceptable laboratory practice? A. is a platform for academics to share research papers. shared via CourseHero.com2019 This lone pair is donated to H+ ion. Why do the bonded atoms remain neutral? shared via CourseHero.com2019 7. (R = 0.0821 liter-atm / mole-K), As the temperature is raised from 20 ° C to 40 ° C, the average kinetic energy of neon atoms changes by a factor of, What number of moles of O2 is needed to produce 14.2 grams of P4O10 from P? Which of the following best helps to account for the fact that the F- ion is smaller than the O2- ion? Of the following pure substances, which has the highest melting point? After completing an experiment to determine gravimetrically the percentage of water in a hydrate, a student reported a value of 38 percent. Powered by TCPDF ( atom, and how does this feature explain why the molecule is polar? Which of the following could explain why the student obtained a molar mass that was too LARGE? The partial pressure of O2(g) in the system is, A hydrocarbon gas with an empirical formula CH2 has a density of 1.88 grams per liter at 0 °C and 1.00 atmosphere. H3AsO3(aq) + . The solid and liquid coexist at. Which of the following statements accounts for this increase? Equal masses of three different ideal gases, X, Y, and Z, are mixed in a sealed rigid container. Get your assignment help services from professionals. Red indicates a negative charge, while blue .....Mg(s) + .....NO3¯(aq) +.....H+(aq) --->......Mg2+(aq) + ....NH4+(aq) + ....H2O(l), The system shown above is at equilibrium at 28 °C. Experiment: Turn on Show electronegativity. The weight of H2SO4 (molecular weight 98.1) in 50.0 milliliters of a 6.00-molar solution is, When a hydrate of Na2CO3 is heated until all the water is removed, it loses 54.3 percent of its mass. B. Under which of the following conditions of temperature and pressure would 1.0 mol of the real gas CO2(g) behave most like an ideal gas? Which of the following molecules contains only single bonds? Observe: Select the Show polar molecule inset checkbox. the tendency of an atom to hold onto electrons in a bond and become negatively charged. Why do you think the molecule does not rotate in this field? The energy required to convert a ground-state atom in the gas phase to a gaseous positive ion. the other hand, usually form discrete molecules. Which of the following values for the gas will decrease? Atoms that gain The boiling points of the elements helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon increase in that order. Commercial vinegar was titrated with NaOH solution to determine the content of acetic acid, HC2H3O2. On the basis of strength of intermolecular forces, which of the following elements would be expected to have the highest melting point? 4. , London dispersion force, molecule, nonpolar, nonpolar What is the partial pressure of the nitrogen? Turn on the electric field. Dipole-dipole forces Dipole-induced dipole forces London dispersion forces nonpolar covalent bond. A measured mass of an unreactive metal was dropped into a small graduated cylinder half filled with water. An oxidation-reduction reaction that is also a synthesis reaction. 2. When the actual gas volume is greater then the volume predicted by the ideal gas law, the explanation lies in the fact that the ideal gas law does NOT include a factor for molecular. If 87 g of K2SO4 (molar mass 174 g) is dissolved in enough water to make 250 mL of solution, what are the concentrations of potassium and sulfate ion respectively? What is the molar concentration of OH-(aq) in the resulting solution? . Which atom seems to be pulling more on the sodium’s one valence electron? What do you notice? A polar molecule, such as H2O, changes its orientation when placed in an electric (Assume that the volumes are additive.). Which of the following does NOT behave as an electrolyte when it is dissolved in water? B. Which of the following represents the ground state electron configuration for the Mn3+ ion? . The sample starts as a gas, and heat is removed at a constant rate. This fractional crystalization is possible because substances X and Y have different, The net ionic equation for the reaction that occurs during the titration of nitrous aicd with sodium hydroxide is, A solution is known to contain an inorganic salt of one of the following elements. The energy required to convert a ground-state atom in the gas phase to a gaseous positive ion. shared via CourseHero.com2019 Liquid naphthalene at 95oC was cooled to 30oC, as represented in the cooling curve above. Polar covalent (Assume volumes are additive.). Two flexible containers for gases are at the same temperature and pressure. AsH3(g) + . Report your findings. What do you notice about the bonds It is suggested that SO2 (molar mass 64 grams), which contributes to acid rain, could be removed from a stream of waste gases by bubbling the gases through 0.25-molar KOH, therby producing K2SO3 . This study resource was In a laboratory experiment, H2(g) is collected over water in a gas-collection tube as shown in the diagram above. Note the colors. Which of the following is a correct interpretation of the results of Rutherford's experiments in which gold atoms were bombarded with alpha particles? How many grams of calcium nitrate, Ca(NO3)2, contains 24 grams of oxygen atoms? When hafnium metal is heated in an atmosphere of chlorine gas, the product of the reaction is found to contain 62.2 percent Hf by mass and 37.4 percent Cl by mass. The only change in the charge on this nucleotide ought to apply to C2′–O2′ atoms, as they formed a bond with non-native nucleic acid connection atom types (the carboxy group of an amino acid). Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE Predicts that it is impossible to determine simultaneously the exact position and the exact velocity of an electron. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for this difference? molecule, the electron cloud of the nonpolar molecule will be repelled, causing a slight For 20.0 milliliters of the vinegar 26.7 milliliters of 0.600-molar NaOH solution was required. Drag two H2O What do you expect to happen to the ball in How many carbon atoms are contained in 2.8 g of C2H4? Propane gas, C3H8, burns in excess oxygen gas. This imbalance leads to forces arise between polar and nonpolar molecules. Click Play. The molecules are leaving the liquid phase. Drag this molecule into the Polar bin. molecules. forces arise between nonpolar molecules. How many moles of solid Ba(NO3)2 should be added to 300. milliliters of 0.20-molar Fe(NO3)3 to increase the concentration of the NO3¯ ion to 1.0-molar? bonded atoms to become partially charged. Activity B (continued from previous page) Which of the following represents a pair of isotopes? If 0.40 mol of H2 and 0.15 mol of O2 were to react completely as possible to produce H2O, what mass of reactant would remain? Of the following molecules, which has the largest dipole moment? The liquefied hydrogen halides have the normal boiling points given above. Explain: Drag the CCl4 molecule into the simulation area. A solution is prepared by adding 16 g of CH3OH (molar mass 32 g) to 90. g of H2O (molar mass 18 g). Equal masses of He and Ne are placed in a sealed container. Forces Gizmo, you will explore how these opposing forces relate to solubility, viscosity, and surface tension. Formation of NH4+ : NH3 has three (N H) bonds and one lone pair. Get all of's best Celebrities lists, news, and more. Observe: Notice that the molecules containing polar covalent bonds are grouped together at Represents an atom that is chemically unreactive, The substance is at its normal freezing point at time. This study resource was H2O. Nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide contribute 99.06% of the molecules in a volume with each molecule contributing an average rotational energy equal to kT. What is the empirical formula for this compound? Intermolecular Ag+ + . just pick the picture that has 2NH3 and 2H2. When an electric current passes through it, water is decomposed to hydrogen and oxygen. The solution contains a salt of. Explain. Drag the bonded atoms to the Nonpolar covalent bond bin. They have oxides that are acid anhydrides. Of the following electron configurations of neutral atoms, which represents an atom in an excited state? Which of the following is a nonpolar molecule that contains polar bonds? The Lewis dot structure of which of the following molecules shows only one unshared pair of valence electron? 1.7975 x 104 7. the molality of the solution remains unchanged. A. Represents an atom that has four valence electrons. Which of the following techniques is the most appropriate for the recovery of solid KNO3 from an aqueous solution of KNO3? How many milliliters of 11.6-molar HCl must be diluted to obtain 1.0 L of 3.0-molar HCl? What is the minimum number of moles of AgNO3 that must be added to the solution in order to precipitate all of the Cl- as AgCl (s) ? A. (Atomic number Mn = 25). What happens to the shared electrons in this bond? The pressure, in atm, exerted by 1.85 mol of an ideal gas placed in a 3.00 L container at 35.0ºC is given by which of the following expressions? Based on the information above, what is the standard enthalpy change for the following reaction? CCl4, CO2, PCl3, PCl5, SF6 Which of the following does not describe any of the molecules above? The following measurements were made. Drag the Na and Cl atoms into the Ionic In a nonpolar bond, electrons are shared equally. Challenge: Find an example of a polar molecule that contains nonpolar bonds. Which molecule did you select? 2. What do you notice? Is used to explain the fact that the carbon-to-carbon bonds in benzene, C6H6, are identical, The density of an unknown gas is 4.20 grams per liter at 3.00 atmospheres pressure and 127 °C. Observe: Turn on the Show nonpolar molecule inset. C. What other nonpolar molecule contains polar bonds? What is the simplest formula of this compound? A possible atomic weight of Q is, Is used to explain the fact that the four bonds in methane are equivalent, The simplest formula for an oxide of nitrogen that is 36.8 percent nitrogen by weight is. The atom that contains exactly two unpaired electrons, The energy change that occurs in the coversion of an ionic solid to widely separated gaseous ions, The figure above shows two closed containers. Drag the A gaseous mixture containing 7.0 moles of nitrogen, 2.5 moles of oxygen, and 0.50 mole of helium exerts a total pressure of 0.90 atmosphere. Of the following single bonds, which is the LEAST polar? that form? Get the Gizmo ready: A sample of 3.30 grams of an ideal gas at 150.0 °C and 1.25 atmospheres pressure has a volume of 2.00 liters. . CO2. Move the tube downward until the water level is the same inside and outside the tube, The atomic mass of copper is 63.55. Can be used to predict that a gaseous carbon atom in its ground state is paramagnetic, Hund's rule (principle of maximum multiplicity), The ground-state configuration of a negative ion of a halogen, 5 Fe2+ + MnO4¯ + 8 H+ 5 Fe3+ + Mn2+ + 4 H2O, When 70. milliliter of 3.0-molar Na2CO3 is added to 30. milliliters of 1.0-molar NaHCO3 the resulting concentration of Na+ is, The mass of element Q found in 1.00 mole of each of four different compounds is 38.0 grams, 57.0 grams, 76.0 grams, and 114 grams, respectively. Check that Show valence electrons is turned on. Each contains the same volume of acetone in equilibrium with its vapor at the same temperature. 1.  Drag the atoms out of the simulation area. dipole-induced dipole force. A 1.0 L sample of an aqueous solution contains 0.10 mol of NaCl and 0.10 mol of CaCl2. the Polar covalent bond bin. . In NH4+ formation. A sample of 9.00 grams of aluminum metal is added to an excess of hydrochloric acid. B. A sample of 0.0100 mole of oxygen gas is confined at 37° C and 0.216 atmosphere. How does this electron distribution affect the charges of the bonded atoms? Experiment: Now try forming bonds between different combinations of nonmetals. The pH of a solution prepared by the addition of 10. mL of 0.002 M KOH(aq) to 10. mL of distilled water is closest to. using the Gizmo.) Types of hybridization exhibited by the C atoms in propene, CH3CHCH2, include which of the following? The molecule that has trigonal pyramidal geometry. The relatively high boiling point of HF can be correctly explained by which of the following? Why is a hydrogen atom in one H2O molecule attracted What volume of 0.150-molar HCl is required to neutralize 25.0 mililiters of 0.120-molar Ba(OH)2? < 1.67 and > 0.40) A compound contains 30. percent sulfur and 70. percent fluorine by mass. The metal calcium reacts with molecular hydrogen to form a compound. shared via . Given that there are only two naturally occurring isotopes of copper, 63Cu and 65Cu, the natural abundance of the 65Cu isotope must be approximately. Before measuring the volume of the gas collected in the tube, what step, if any, must be taken to make it possible to determine the total gas pressure inside the tube? Question: What causes bonds to be polar or nonpolar? Molecular polarity The dehydrated sample absorbed moisture after heating. Flush the affected area with water and then with a dilute NaHCO3 solution, Ionization Energies for the element X (kJ mol-1). Question: How does polarity affect the forces between molecules? The proper procedure is to weigh out, 42.8 grams of KIO3 and add H2O until the final homogeneous solution has a volume of 2.00 liters, A 2.00-liter sample of nitrogen gas at 27 °C and 600. millimeters of mercury is heated until it occupies a volume of 5.00 liters. Drag the resulting combination to In this molecules into the simulation area, and click Play. ...CrO2¯ + ...OH¯ ... CrO42¯ + ... H2O + ... e¯ When the equation for the half-reaction above is balanced, what is the ratio of the coefficients OH¯ / CrO2¯ ? CH3CH2OH boils at 78 °C and CH3OCH3 boils at - 24 °C, although both compounds have the same composition. Experiment: Drag an O2 molecule and an H2O molecule into the simulation area. A bond in which the electrons are shared unequally is a polar covalent bond. : NH3 + H + NH4+ Hydrogen bonds between H2O molecules are broken. A sample of an ideal gas is cooled from 50.0 °C to 25.0 °C in a sealed container of constant volume. A student wishes to prepare 2.00 liters of 0.100-molar KIO3 (molecular weight 214). Classify: Drag out different combinations of molecules in the Gizmo and categorize them. Just like in a tug-of-war, atoms that are bonded to one another pull Why or why not?  On the BOND POLARITY tab, click Reset ( ). (III) Atom/ion/molecule accepting electron pair is called acceptor or Lewis acid. What is the most electronegative element of the below? A compound is heated to produce a gas whose molecular weight is to be determined. Cheap essay writing sercice. (Activity C continued on next page) Observe: Select the Show polar molecule inset checkbox. When a solution of sodium chloride is vaporized in a flame, the color of the flame is, The molecule with the largest dipole moment. The attraction between the positive end of one ...Cr2O72-(aq) + ...H2S(g) + ...H+(aq) ...Cr3+(aq) + ...S(s) + ...H2O(l). Is this molecule polar or nonpolar? A polar molecule, while neutral overall, has a ionic, polar covalent, or nonpolar covalent bonds. Give at least three examples of molecule combinations for each intermolecular force.